Congress barely avoided the Fiscal Cliff by passing the American Taxpayer Relief Act. In my January 2013 Newsletter I addressed business provisions of the Act, courtesy of a January 1, 2013 article by Paul Bonner and Alistair M. Nevius, appearing in the Journal of Accountancy. The following, also based on that article, addresses some major effects on individual taxes.
“Individual tax rates
All the individual marginal tax rates under the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 (“EGTRRA”) and the Jobs and Growth Tax Releif Reconciliation Act of 2003 (“JGTRRA”) are retained (10%, 15%, 25%, 28%, 33%, and 35%). A new top rate of 39.6% is imposed on taxable income over $400,000 for single filers, $425,000 for head-of-household filers, and $450,000 for married taxpayers filing jointly ($225,000 for each married spouse filing separately).
Phaseout of itemized deductions and personal exemptions
The personal exemptions and itemized deductions phaseout is reinstated at a higher threshold of $250,000 for single taxpayers, $275,000 for heads of household, and $300,000 for married taxpayers filing jointly.
Capital gains and dividends
A 20% rate applies to capital gains and dividends for individuals above the top income tax bracket threshold; the 15% rate is retained for taxpayers in the middle brackets. The zero rate is retained for taxpayers in the 10% and 15% brackets.
Alternative minimum tax
The exemption amount for the AMT on individuals is permanently indexed for inflation. For 2012, the exemption amounts are $78,750 for married taxpayers filing jointly and $50,600 for single filers. Relief from AMT for nonrefundable credits is retained.
Estate and gift tax
The estate and gift tax exclusion amount is retained at $5 million indexed for inflation ($5.12 million in 2012), but the top tax rate increases from 35% to 40% effective Jan. 1, 2013. The estate tax “portability” election, under which, if an election is made, the surviving spouse’s exemption amount is increased by the deceased spouse’s unused exemption amount, was made permanent by the act.
Various temporary tax provisions enacted as part of EGTRRA were made permanent. These include:
- Marriage penalty relief (i.e., the increased size of the 15% rate bracket (Sec. 1(f)(8)) and increased standard deduction for married taxpayers filing jointly (Sec. 63(c)(2));
- The liberalized child and dependent care credit rules (allowing the credit to be calculated based on up to $3,000 of expenses for one dependent or up to $6,000 for more than one) (Sec. 21);
- Expanded adoption credit (Sec. 23) and adoption-assistance program (Sec. 137) amounts;
- The exclusion for National Health Service Corps and Armed Forces Health Professions scholarships (Sec. 117(c)(2));
- The exclusion for employer-provided educational assistance (Sec. 127);
- The enhanced rules for student loan deductions introduced by EGTRRA (Sec. 221);
- The higher contribution amount and other EGTRRA changes to Coverdell education savings accounts (Sec. 530);
- The employer-provided child care credit (Sec. 45F);
- Special treatment of tax-exempt bonds for education facilities (Sec 142(a)(13));
- Repeal of the collapsible corporation rules (Sec. 341);
- Special rates for accumulated earnings tax and personal holding company tax (Secs. 531 and 541); and
- Modified tax treatment for electing Alaska Native Settlement Trusts (Sec. 646).
Individual credits expired at the end of 2012
The American opportunity tax credit for qualified tuition and other expenses of higher education was extended through 2017. Other credits and items from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, P.L. 111-5, that were extended for the same five-year period include enhanced provisions of the child tax credit under Sec. 24(d) and the earned income tax credit under Sec. 32(b). In addition, the bill permanently extends a rule excluding from taxable income refunds from certain federal and federally assisted programs (Sec. 6409).
Individual provisions expired at the end of 2011
The act also extended through 2013 a number of temporary individual tax provisions, most of which expired at the end of 2011:
- Deduction for certain expenses of elementary and secondary school teachers (Sec. 62);
- Exclusion from gross income of discharge of qualified principal residence indebtedness (Sec. 108);
- Parity for exclusion from income for employer-provided mass transit and parking benefits (Sec. 132(f));
- Mortgage insurance premiums treated as qualified residence interest (Sec. 163(h));
- Deduction of state and local general sales taxes (Sec. 164(b));
- Special rule for contributions of capital gain real property made for conservation purposes (Sec. 170(b));
- Above-the-line deduction for qualified tuition and related expenses (Sec. 222); and
- Tax-free distributions from individual retirement plans for charitable purposes (Sec. 408(d)).”
Paul Bonner is a Journal of Accountancy’s senior editor and Alistair M. Nevius is the Journal of Accountancy’s editor-in-chief, tax.
To view the Journal of Accountancy article in its entirety go to: http://www.journalofaccountancy.com/News/20137097.htm.
To see my January Newsletter which addresses business aspects of the Act click here .
In addition to the subjects addressed above and in my January 2013 Newsletter, certain new taxes took effect January 1, 2013 as a result of 2010’s health care reform legislation. These will be addressed in a future Blog to be published shortly.